Urogenital chlamydia trachomatis treatment failure with azithromycin: A meta-analysis|
Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoumeh; Afrakhteh, Maryam; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Abdi, Fatemeh & Pakzad, Reza
Background: Chlamydia Trachomatis is one of the most common pathogens
transmitted through the genital tract in humans that leads to urogenital infection.
Objective: Given the high prevalence of chlamydia infection and its adverse effects on
the health of women and men, the present meta-analysis was conducted to determine
the rate of treatment failure with azithromycin.
Materials and Methods: Databases including MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PubMed,
EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest, and Science Direct were searched for articles published
between 1991 and 2018. The quality of the selected articles was assessed using the
Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Heterogeneity was determined using the I2 and
Cochrane Q-Test. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to compare the
prevalence rates on different levels of the variables.
Results:A total of 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria were ultimately assessed. The
pooled estimate of azithromycin failure rate was 11.23% (CI 95%: 8.23%-14.24%). Also,
the azithromycin failure rate was 15.87% (CI 95%: 10.20%-21.54%) for the treatment of
urethritis, 7.41% (CI 95%: 0.60%-14.22%) for cervicitis, and 7.14% (CI 95%: 10.90%-3.39%)
for genital chlamydia. The pooled estimate of failure rate difference was 2.37% (CI
95%: 0.68%-4.06%), which shows that azithromycin has a higher failure rate in the
treatment of chlamydia compared to doxycycline and other examined medications.
The meta-regression results showed that the patient’s age contributes significantly to
the heterogeneity for azithromycin treatment failure rate (β = 0.826; p = 0.017).
Conclusion: Azithromycin has a higher failure rate than doxycycline and other studied
medications in treating urogenital chlamydia infections.
Azithromycin; Chlamydia trachomatis; Urogenital; Treatment failure; Meta-analysis.