International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine
Research and Clinical Center for Infertility, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences of Yazd
Vol. 17, No. 8, 2019, pp. 585-590
Bioline Code: rm19063
Full paper language: English
Document type: Short Communication
Document available free of charge
International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, Vol. 17, No. 8, 2019, pp. 585-590
© Copyright 2019 - Mahbobeh Faramarzi et al.
Maternal mid- and late-pregnancy distress and birth outcome: A causal model of the mediatory role of pregnancy-specific distress|
Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Hassanjanzadeh, Parvin & Khafri, Soraya
Background: There is lack of information about the effect of general distress and
pregnancy-specific distress in mid- and late-pregnancy separately on neonatal outcome.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of mid-maternal distress on
late-maternal distress and birth outcomes with a causal model of relationships among
general distress and pregnancy-specific distress.
Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal descriptive study, 100 low-risk pregnant
women participated. Participants completed three questionnaires at mid-pregnancy
(13–26 wk) and at late pregnancy (27–40 wk). Pregnancy-general distress was assessed
by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Pregnancy-specific
distress was evaluated by the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire. The pregnant
women were followed to after birth and neonatal outcome were assessed.
Results: All total effect pathways were significant as predictors of birth outcomes
(height, weight, and head circumference). Mid-pregnancy-specific distress had a significant
relationship with late pregnancy-specific distress. However, mid-maternal distress
was not related directly to birth outcomes. The effect of mid-maternal distress on birth
outcomes was related indirectly to late-maternal distress. Both late general distress and
late pregnancy-specific distress had direct negative effects on three indexes of birth
outcome. The negative effect of late general-pregnancy distress and mid-pregnancy-specific
distress on birth outcome was mediated through late pregnancy-specific
Conclusion: Both late pregnancy-general distress and pregnancy-specific distress
have negative effects on birth outcomes. These findings support a role for negative
effect as mediating the relationship between late pregnancy-specific distress and
Birth outcomes; Pregnancy; Distress; Anxiety; Depression.
Alternative site location: http://www.ijrm.ir